The third most popular category was portraits, followed by still life and genre. Lower status was attributed to farmers, craft and tradesmen, shopkeepers, and government bureaucrats.
National Portrait Gallery, London Evelyn wrote, "pictures are very common here [in the Netherlands], there being scarce an ordinary tradesman whose house is not decorated with them. For those who preferred depictions of fellow Dutchman over pictures of Dutch land, sea sky and bricks, paintings of folk people skating, aristocrats surveying the countryside on horseback, people arguing, people making business, soldiers making war and dignitaries making peace were available in any size and style.
De Witte, dreadfully poor at the last, was found drowned in an Amsterdam canal, and presumed a suicide. The political and social changes that took place in the eighteenth century paved the way for these future writers and activists to advance the cause of women's rights.
Ferdinand Bol and Aelbert Cuyp both married wealthy women and could afford to paint less. Though art had not degenerated into an overlooked object of utility, the differentiation between paintings and other objects was somehow weakened. Dissolute self-portraits stand apart from what was expected of a conventional self-portrait, yet they were nonetheless appreciated and valued in Dutch culture and in the art market.
Below that stood skilled laborers, maids, servants, sailors, and other persons employed in the service industry. This section does not cite any sources.
Evidently, the lure of significant future earnings must have existed. For example, Ter Borch, a painter blessed with both supreme talent and business savvy, made a mirrored version his Woman Drinking with a Drunken Soldier see images left a few years later to picture he swapped the lazy folds of a carpet and wine jug for the drowsing young cavalier contemporarily substituting the pristine porcelain wine jug held tightly by the maid with a unfolded letter: But many painters depended on secondary sources of income to survive.
The master-apprentice relationship contemporarily permitted the master to increase his output and earnings while training new painters. In any case, producing such expensive, time-consuming paintings had the advantage that the upper economic crust who could afford them remained largely isolated from the effects of by economic downturns, in fact, their wealth often increased.
As he advanced in his ability, he was permitted to work on the areas of his master's canvases of lesser importance such as the foliage in the painting's background or some of the less evident draperies.
Book 10 of The Republic deals specifically with art and artists and Plato makes it quite clear that the mimetic artist would be excluded from the ideal state, since "he wakens and encourages and strengthens the lower elements in the mind to the detriment of reason.
Elizabeth I ascended to the throne ina woman who contradicted many of the gender roles of the age. Paintings could be bought directly from artists in their studios or from art dealers who had become the most important buyers of art.
While Mundy's and Evelyn's comments were likely based on fact, it is important to note that the pictures they mentioned varied greatly in quality and price.
Painters continually cloned their own works. New York,p. Vermeer was known to have dealt in works of other painters but it is not known how much success he had. Utrecht's art community stopped growing about while the number of painters in Delft increased for another decade. Success was guaranteed by the production of art which matched the buyers' expectations.
However, if an artist was able to fulfill the expectations of the most affluent members of the public he could rise to be a member of the leading artistic group and in a few cases, such as Ter Borch, to city's upper-class.Painters in the Dutch Republic in the 17th century pushed the possibilities of art far beyond previous limits.
They observed the visible world closely and mastered techniques for representing it.
They found new meanings in old stories—mythical, historical, and biblical—and staged and restaged scenes from the everyday human comedy. The Dutch Golden Age was a period in the history of Holland generally spanning the 17th century, during and after the later part of the Eighty Years’ War.
Vanitas paintings were very popular in 17th century Flemish and Dutch work, and they often depict symbols such as skulls, flowers, rotting fruit, clocks, watches, smoke, and hourglasses, all of which are meant to convey the ephemeral nature of life on earth.
ByDutch, Flemish, German, and French specialties had become less clearly distinguishable, with Dutch painters working for foreign princes and the market for still lifes growing throughout Europe.
The French painters Jean Siméon Chardin and Jean-Baptiste Oudry are among the many eighteenth-century heirs to the Netherlandish tradition. For example, prior to the beginning of the 17th century, scientific study and scientists in the field were not truly recognized.
In fact, important figures and pioneers such as the 17th-century physicist Isaac Newton were initially called natural philosophers because there was no such thing as the word scientist throughout most of the 17th century.
The Dutch philosopher Spinoza, often considered one of the fathers of modern rationalism, and some of the greatest painters of the early modern period like van Dyck, Rembrandt, Vermeer and Frans Hals were all products of this period.Download